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特朗普政府在新的“公共收费”规则中引用了1882年的移民法

2019-08-13 15:58   美国新闻网   - 

 

  今天早上,特朗普总统的国土安全部发布了一项规则变更,将彻底改变美国的合法移民制度。这一变化将阻止许多在美国工作的居民获得绿卡,并有利于富裕的移民,而不是那些寻求摆脱经济困境的移民。

  特朗普助手斯蒂芬·米勒(Stephen Miller)长期推动的新837页规则将于10月15日生效,该规则基于1882年《移民法》的措辞,该法案称,美国政府可以拒绝任何他们认为有可能成为“公共指控”的人进入然而,国会和联邦政府以前从未定义什么是公共指控。这条规则改变了这一点。

  这些变化是由代理美国公民和移民服务主任肯·库奇内利(Ken Cuccinelli)向新闻界介绍的,被称为“公共收费”规则,他们建议移民官员拒绝或拒绝那些使用提供一定现金支付的公共服务的移民申请人。该规定还允许移民官员根据申请人未来需要公共援助的可能性来判断他们。

  Cuccinelli对媒体表示,他无法具体说明这项计划的改变会带来什么样的经济效益。

  “好处是长期利益,自给自足对美国和美国纳税人的未来至关重要,”他说。但是,他澄清说,没有美元数额,“因为纳税人的利益是前瞻性的。”

  就在德克萨斯州埃尔帕索发生枪杀22人的事件几天后,一名白人民族主义者发表了反对移民的言论,库奇内利也驳斥了这一宣布时机是否明智的问题。

  “这种分裂可能更具修辞性,”他说。

Cuccinelli
2019年8月12日,美国公民和移民服务局代理局长肯·库奇内利在DC华盛顿白宫的一次简报会上发言。BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/法新社/GETTY

  但其他人不同意。“就在一场恐怖袭击发生后一周,一名白人至上主义者在埃尔帕索杀害了22人,并专门针对拉美裔社区,特朗普政府发起了迄今为止最激进的伤害移民家庭和推进反移民议程的企图。”说进步智库美国进步中心移民政策常务董事菲利普·沃尔金。

  “最近这一伤害移民的企图是在总统三年反移民言论和行动之后发生的,总统一直致力于使美国的仇恨正常化。在埃尔帕索,我们看到了这种仇恨气氛的痛苦后果。”

  一些人担心新规定会对移民产生寒蝉效应,他们不会为了更好地获得绿卡而寻求必要的医疗保健或挨饿。

  预算和政策优先中心主席罗伯特·格林斯坦在一份声明中写道:“这将在移民社区中播下更多的恐惧,几乎肯定会导致许多合法居住在美国的移民及其家庭成员放弃他们需要并符合联邦法律规定的医疗保险、营养援助和住房援助。”。

  任何在任何36个月内获得一个或多个公共福利达12个月的移民现在都可能被拒绝绿卡。这些福利侧重于现金和收入援助,包括对贫困家庭的补充安全收入和临时援助,根据一份概况介绍。

  移民政策研究所估计,根据这项计划,将近一半的家庭绿卡将被拒绝。

  倡导者们还担心,政策变化将对有家庭成员申请绿卡的美国公民产生“寒蝉效应”,并劝阻他们使用公共福利。在许多情况下,在美国出生的孩子是合法公民,而他们的父母不是。库契内利周一表示,这不成问题,因为美国希望移民能够“自食其力”

  “这项政策剥夺了非白人和富人在这个国家永久、安全的未来,”国家移民法中心执行主任玛丽埃琳娜·欣卡皮说。“我们不会容忍它。国家移民法律中心正准备起诉以反击这项规定并保护移民家庭。”

  与此同时,皮尤研究中心的一项新研究发现,65%的美国人认为联邦政府在处理越来越多在美墨边境寻求庇护的人方面做得不好,72%的美国人说,如果某些条件得到满足,无证移民应该被允许合法留在美国。

TRUMP ADMINISTRATION CITES IMMIGRATION LAWS FROM 1882 IN NEW "PUBLIC CHARGE" RULE

This morning President Trump's Department of Homeland Security released a rule change that would drastically alter the legal immigration system in the United States. The change would stop a number of residents working in the U.S. from obtaining green cards and favor wealthy migrants over those looking to escape economic hardship.

The new 837-page rule, which was long pushed by Trump aide Stephen Miller and will go into effect on October 15, is based off wording in the Immigration Act of 1882, which says that the U.S. government can deny access to anyone they deem likely to become a "public charge." Congress and the federal government, however, never defined what it meant to be a public charge before. This rule changes that.

The changes, presented to the press by Acting U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Director Ken Cuccinelli, are known as the "public charge" rule, and they advise immigration officials to reject or ding immigration applicants who have used public services that provide certain cash payments. The rule also allows immigration officials to judge applicants based on how likely it is they'll need public assistance in the future.

Speaking to the press, Cuccinelli was unable to specify any of the economic benefits this program change would have.

"The benefit is long-term benefit, self-sufficiency is critical for the U.S. and American taxpayers going forward," he said. But, he clarified, there is no dollar amount "because the benefit for taxpayers is forward-looking."

Cuccinelli also shook off questions about whether the timing of this announcement was wise, just days after a shooting that killed 22 in El Paso, Texas, was perpetrated by a white nationalist who had posted anti-immigration rants.

"That divisiveness may be more rhetorical," he said.

Cuccinelli
Acting Director of the US Citizenship and Immigration Services Ken Cuccinelli speaks during a briefing at the White House August 12, 2019, in Washington, DC.BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP/GETTY

But others disagree. "Just a week after a terrorist attack in which a white supremacist killed 22 people in El Paso and specifically targeted the Latino community, the Trump administration has launched its most radical attempt yet to harm immigrant families and further its anti-immigrant agenda," said Philip E. Wolgin, managing director of immigration policy at the Center for American Progress, a progressive think tank.

"This latest attempt to harm immigrants comes on the heels of three years of anti-immigrant rhetoric and actions from the president, who has worked to normalize hate in the United States. In El Paso, we saw the painful consequences of this climate of hate."

Some worry that the new rules will have a chilling effect on migrants, and that they will not seek out necessary healthcare or go hungry in order to have a better shot at a green card.

"It will sow more fear in immigrant communities and almost certainly lead many immigrants who are in the United States legally as well as their family members to forgo health coverage, nutrition assistance and housing assistance that they need and are eligible for under federal law," wrote Center on Budget and Policy Priorities President Robert Greenstein in a statement.

Any immigrant who receives one or more public benefits for 12 months within any 36 month period can now now likely be denied a green card. Those benefits focus on cash and income assistance and include Supplemental Security Income and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, according to a fact sheet.

The Migration Policy Institute has estimated that nearly half of all family green cards would be denied under this program.

Advocates also worry that the policy changes will have a "chilling effect" on U.S. citizens who have family members applying for green cards and will dissuade them from using public benefits as well. In many cases, children born in the U.S. are legal citizens while their parents are not. Cuccinelli said Monday that this wasn't a problem because the U.S. wanted migrants who were able to "stand on their own two feet.

"This policy denies a permanent, secure future in this country to anyone who isn't white and wealthy," said Marielena Hincapié, executive director of the National Immigration Law Center. "We will not stand for it. The National Immigration Law Center is preparing to sue to fight back against this regulation and protect immigrant families."

A new study by the Pew Research Center, meanwhile, found that 65 percent of Americans think the federal government is doing a bad job dealing with the increased number of people seeking asylum at the U.S.-Mexico border and 72 percent of Americans said that undocumented immigrants should be allowed to stay in the U.S. legally if certain conditions are met.

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